Сейділда Ақерке Манатқызы, Умирзакова Ардақ Ізбасарқызы,
Серік Нарқыз Русланқызы, Сапар Мирас Ерланұлы
Университет «Туран», Гуманитарно-юридический факультет
The authors investigate the phenomenon of neologisms, new words or expressions that appear in various fields of human activity. The authors consider the process of formation of neologisms, their functions and significance in modern society.
The purpose of this article is to study the phenomenon of neologisms in various spheres of life and to determine their meaning and influence on the development of language. The research method is based on the analysis of literature, the study of various sources and the conduct of original research, qualitative content analysis and discursive analysis are used.
Results: the analysis made it possible to identify different types of neologisms in each of the selected areas, as well as to determine the features and trends in their creation. The study also showed that neologisms are actively used in various communicative contexts and play an important role in the formation of new concepts and ideas. Moreover, they influence the development of theory and practice in the relevant fields.
Conclusions: the study confirmed the importance of neologisms in any sphere of their use. Neologisms promote development and innovation in selected areas, but require careful and competent use to avoid misunderstandings and misinterpretation.
The results of the study can be used for further research in the field of neologisms in selected areas, as well as for the development of recommendations for the effective use of neologisms in communication.
Keywords: neologisms, lexicon, language, sphere, spheres of life, new words.
Neologisms, new words and expressions, are an integral part of language development and reflect new objects, phenomena or concepts. They arise as a result of scientific and technological progress, social changes and cultural development of society. However, the use and understanding of these new words can cause difficulties, especially in different countries with different linguistic and cultural characteristics.
What do you associate the word «phone» with? Probably with your favorite smartphone or an already outdated wired communication device, which is carefully stored on the mezzanine . Last year alone, 675 new words were included in the spelling dictionary of the Russian language, some of which were not previously encountered at all in oral and written speech, and are now actively used in youth and business slang . And the other part consists of already well-known words that have been transformed, acquired a completely new meaning in today’s time.
A neologism (translated from Greek means «new word») is a word or phrase that is new to the language. This concept is relative, because a lexical unit is a neologism as long as it is associated with something new. Neologisms can be words that have never previously been encountered in written and spoken speech, or those that have acquired a different meaning in the course of any events or circumstances.
For example, the word «podcast» appeared relatively recently, during the iPod boom, i.e., before the development of «apple», it was not used in Russian speech. Speaking of «apples»: this word can now also be attributed to a neologism, because it now means not only fruit, but also Apple equipment, and the adjective «apple» is associated with a socio-political association .
Neologisms in any field are an integral part of language development and reflect new subjects, phenomena or concepts. However, using and understanding these new words can cause difficulties. There are differences in the use and distribution of neologisms in different countries. For example, in the USA and the UK, where English is the official language, new words and expressions quickly penetrate into everyday speech and become widely used . This is due to the active use of the English language in scientific, technical and economic spheres. In other countries where English is not an official language, the process of penetration of neologisms may be slower. For example, in Russia, new words and expressions from the English language can be borrowed and used in certain areas, such as information technology or medicine, but they are not always widespread in everyday speech.
It is also worth noting that different neologisms may appear and be used in different countries, depending on the cultural characteristics and specifics of each country. For example, in Japan, there are many neologisms associated with technology and pop culture, such as «anime» and «manga». In Germany, where the language is characterized by long words, neologisms appear, formed by adding several words into one. Examples of the use of neologisms in various countries of the world can confirm this point of view. Also, you can mention an example of the use of neologisms in English, for example, the word «selfie». This term has appeared in recent years and has become the personification of the culture of selfie photos . At the same time, the use of English neologisms can cause difficulties for speakers of other languages, especially if they do not have a sufficient level of English proficiency.
Therefore, when using neologisms, it is necessary to approach the introduction of new words with intelligence and thrift so that they serve to enrich the language, but at the same time do not complicate understanding and do not create a level of language barrier that exceeds the comfort zone for most people.
In different countries of the world, neologisms are used in various fields and have their own characteristics.
There are many examples of the use of neologisms in politics. For example, in the United States, the term «fake news» became widespread after the election of President Trump . It is used to refer to false information or misinformation that circulates in the media. This term has become a symbol of the struggle against the falsification of news and manipulation of public opinion.
In economics, one example of a neologism is the term «startup». This word means a young company that develops innovative products or services. Such companies usually strive for rapid growth and attract investment . The term «startup» is actively used in Silicon Valley in the United States and other countries where innovative technologies are the main engine of economic development. In the USA and Great Britain, where English is the official language, new words and expressions quickly penetrate into everyday speech and become widely used . This is due to the active use of the English language in scientific, technical and economic spheres. For example, terms such as «selfie», «twitter» and «blogger» quickly became part of American and British culture and everyday speech (table 1).
Examples of the use of neologisms in any sphere
|Sphere||Examples of neologisms|
|Technology||«Smartphone», «selfie», «googling».|
|Fashion||«Digitization», «eco-friendly», «sport casual».|
|Innovation||«Blockchain», «nanotechnology», «artificial intelligence».|
|Culture||«Cosplay», «blogger», «TikTok».|
|Medicine||«Telemedicine», «nanorobots», «gene therapy».|
|Environment||«Eco-friendly», «sustainable development», «biodiversity».|
|Sports||«Workout», «Eurosport», «extremathlon».|
|Art||«Videomapping», «art hackathon», «installation».|
There are also many neologisms in the culture. For example, in Japan, the term «otaku» is used to refer to a person who is fond of anime, manga and video games. This term has become popular all over the world and reflects Japanese pop culture, which has become a global phenomenon.
In sports, you can also find examples of the use of neologisms. For example, in Brazil, the term «saudade» is used to refer to feelings of nostalgia and longing for past times or people . This term has become a symbol of Brazilian football and reflects its emotional significance for the nation.
In Kazakhstan, one can also observe the use and spread of neologisms, especially in connection with the development of information technology and economic changes. For example, in recent years, new words and expressions related to the Internet and social networks have appeared in the Kazakh language. However, due to multilingualism in the country, the use and understanding of neologisms may vary depending on the language preferences and cultural characteristics of each region.
These examples show that neologisms are actively used in various spheres and countries of the world. They reflect the development of society, technology and culture. The use of neologisms allows the language to be relevant and adapt to modern realities. They become part of our linguistic heritage and reflect the unique aspects of each country and its culture.
Neologisms in any field are an integral part of language development and reflect current trends and changes in society. However, their use and understanding may vary in different countries depending on the cultural characteristics and specifics of each country . In the USA and the UK, new words and expressions quickly penetrate into everyday speech, in Russia they can be borrowed and used in certain areas, in Japan they are associated with technology and pop culture, and in Germany they are formed by adding several words into one. There are also changes in the language in Kazakhstan, but they may vary depending on the language preferences and cultural characteristics of each region.
In conclusion, neologisms in any field have their pros and cons. On the one hand, they allow the language to develop and adapt to new subjects, concepts and technologies. New words can be useful in accurately expressing our thoughts and ideas, as well as contribute to the development of science, technology and culture. However, neologisms can complicate communication, especially if they are not widespread or unknown to a large number of people . Excessive use of neologisms can create barriers in understanding and interaction between people. Therefore, it is important to find a balance between introducing new words and maintaining the accessibility and intelligibility of the language for all participants in communication.
We believe that neologisms can be valuable tools of language, but their use should be meaningful. New words and terms should be introduced taking into account the context and the specific position of communication. It is also important to provide training and education for those who are not familiar with these words in order to minimize possible misunderstandings and disconnection. Ultimately, the effective use of neologisms requires a balance between updating the language and maintaining a clear, understandable and accessible communication rhythm. It is necessary to keep in mind the diversity of language levels and knowledge in order to ensure the most effective interaction and understanding in various spheres of life.
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